Any manufacturing firm can learn a training from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have set up the operations in the usa along with the automotive suppliers

Any manufacturing firm can learn a training from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have set up the operations in the usa along with the automotive suppliers

In this work, Darwin showed that the species of plants and animals are variable, and that the present species have evolved naturally from the other species that existed previously. The top features of this new species are manufactured by the natural collection of the non-directional changes that are ideal for the organism. Hence, the form most suited towards the current environment will survive. In 1868, Darwin published his second major work known as “The Variations of Animals and Plants under Domestication,” that has been a supplement for his theory (Shanahan 111). In this work, he included a number of the particular proof the evolution of organic types drawn from the centuries-old practice. The next great work with the theory of evolution named “The Descent of Man” had been published in 1871, by adding the book “The Expression of the Emotions in Man and Animals”, this provides it a logical ending (Shanahan 249).

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The Evolution of Darwinism

Although Darwin’s theory had been predicated on and endless choice of facts, had been carefully designed and looked extremely convincing, it has met a resistance into the scientific community and secular society. Even the secular press of the time wrote that Darwin’s ideas are not only unscientific, however, if they have been widespread, the morality would lose its steady authority.writing profile essay examples Therefore, the adoption of this theory of evolution was a hard struggle, but Darwin himself did not indulge in it as a result of his poor health. In addition, the monetary self-reliance of this extremely wealthy Darwin family members allowed him not to be involved in the “struggle for existence.”

Darwin’s theory have not triumphed straight away and simultaneously in every countries. Because of the efforts of Hooker, Lyell and Huxley in England, Haeckel and Mueller in Germany, it has been established in these countries through the life of Darwin (Masci 758). In France it absolutely was maybe not successful, because its scientific sectors were dominated by the notion of catastrophism by G. Cuvier, additionally the theory did not find active supporters. Generally speaking, in the act of this formation and evolution of Darwin’s theory (which includes taken place throughout its history), the controversy had been predicated on a limited range the key dilemmas – the evidence of this rightness or wrongness of this evolutionary ideas. In particular, Darwin wanted to try to find them into the fossils. He hoped that with time, interspecific transitional life types, which prove the rightness of his teaching, would be found. Ever since then, thousands and thousands of fossils were discovered, nevertheless the situation remained rather tense. Just a few findings could scarcely pass for transitional types. More over, between different vertebrates (fish, reptiles, and birds) there were at the very least some dubious transitional types, additionally the process of transition from invertebrates to vertebrates remained a mystery. In addition, there were no convincing samples of transitional types into the plant kingdom (Yahya 47).

However, Darwinism gradually gained power, which allowed him not to pay attention to the authoritative opponents. As an example, the famous works of Louis Pasteur, showing no traces of spontaneous generation in inanimate nature, were met with hostility. Into the days of Pasteur, the theory of germs was flourishing. Ahead of his work, people thought that the emergence of worms into the meat and fermentation of wine was a spontaneous processes (Yahya 17). As being a result, among the guys of science, maybe not all have observed the notion of Darwinism. In England, one of them had been the founder of this British Museum of Natural History, the anatomist Richard Owen, who opposed to the ideas of Darwin from a scientifically-based position. By early twentieth century, it became clear for many that Darwin’s theory is flawed, as it remained unconfirmed into the fossil record. As a result, the many supporters of Darwinism began to tinker and improve it, creating neo-Darwinism or the synthetic theory of evolution. Since then, it is constantly evolving and is described even nowadays.

A crucial look at Darwin’s Theory

Darwin’s teaching is founded on the explained facts of evolution, that will be the cornerstone of this modern evolutionary theory. However, the latter could not have been developed on a single comparison of naturalistic facts. Therefore, one may assume that that Darwin’s evolutionism of this 1840s has been developed into the framework of this old ideas of natural theology, which claimed that God has generated most of the existing things (Masci 759). In his works, Darwin used the language which was characteristic of this natural theology. However, he started filling the old religious ideas aided by the evolutionary content. Thus, it’s possible to argue that Darwin has drawn a hypothesis by means of the creature that is able to produce a selection way more precisely than a human. The omnipresent and all-seeing being is able to look within the organisms and also make the selection of their significant variations and features that occur very hardly ever in nature and could make sure their survival as time goes by. This line of reasoning has directly testified that Darwin did not break up aided by the old theological ideas. Apparently, the immediate factors behind the Creator in to the evolutionary process has served as being a primary explanation of this changes occurring aided by the species, while a tiny stock of intraspecific variations has received lower priority (Shanahan 118).

It is worth mentioning that Darwin paid little awareness of this is of variability, that will be the adaptive response of organisms towards the environmental factors. He thought that the key material for the evolution is given by the so-called indefinite variability that develops intoxicated by the external environment, but won’t have an adaptive nature, i.e. it emerges spontaneously without a particular reason. On the other hand, various opposing theories provided the dominant role in the process of evolution to adaptation. In accordance with these theories, the adaptive changes are inherited as they are the material for the evolutionary process.https://123helpme.me/ However, specific changes of adaptive type – the so-called adaptive adjustments (e.g. the crooked trunk of this tree that grew in harsh conditions) – are not inherited (Wallace 85). Only the ability of organisms to the specific external factors is transferred from one generation to some other, as evidenced by the consistency with which the adaptive adjustments appear once more after the restoration of this former conditions. In addition, numerous experiments demonstrate that the hereditary changes emerging into the organisms are not adaptive. The adaptive adjustments are maybe not this new abilities, nevertheless the effect developed due towards the evolution of organisms (Wallace 86). More over, a lot of the other ideas of evolution that explained the driving forces of this historical process in nature were speculative or on the basis of the idealistic attitude. However, the materialistic nature of Darwin’s theory made it unacceptable towards the conservative section of biologists and religiously-minded sectors. Still, it must be noted that in order to increase the theory of natural selection, Darwin lacked many things, and especially genetics – the core of biology. Furthermore, Darwin had not been strong in logics, and some of his statements were contradictory. As an example, he was struggling to explain the simultaneous existence of complex (the animals) and simple (the germs) kinds of living organisms, while, in accordance with his theory, lower beings always evolved in to the higher ones (Yahya 58). More over, mathematicians have repeatedly drawn awareness of the neo-Darwinian tautology in the provisions of this survival and adaptation – species survive since they are able to adapt, additionally the ability to adapt provides their survival. The full time factor is also the heavily weighed for the theories of Darwinism and neo-Darwinism: there is without question the time for the evolution, additionally the same time factor ruled out an experimental test of whether there is variability in species due to the change in the habitat conditions (Yahya 124). Hence, due to the unverifiable biological macroevolution (from molecules to a man), the Darwin’s theory can be viewed the thing of faith, and is allowed to be derived beyond science.

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The Value regarding the Evolutionary Theory

Despite most of the flaws and flaws of his teaching, Darwin has become the first man in history to produce the theory of biological evolution. It is of great methodological importance and have not only clearly and convincingly justified the notion of organic evolution, but in addition has made it possible to test the legitimacy of the very most theory of evolution. This is a decisive period of just one of the maximum conceptual revolutions in science. The absolute most essential event in this scientific revolution had been the replacement of this theological ideas of evolution, which stated that nature were developed within their modern type. Despite tough criticism, Darwin’s theory quickly gained recognition because of the fact that the historical development of nature explained the observed activities a lot better than the immutability of species. To substantiate his theory, Darwin, in contrast to his predecessors, has attracted a a large amount of facts offered to him from many different areas. Highlighting the biotic relations and their popular interpretation had been an essential innovation of this notion of Darwinian evolution. It gives the best to close out that Darwin created his own notion of the struggle for existence. It absolutely was fundamentally different from the ideas of Darwin’s precursors. Here is the essence of this scientific importance of Darwinism.

Another merit of Darwinism is his revelation of this driving forces of this organic evolution. The further development of biology has deepened and complemented his views, which includes formed the cornerstone of modern Darwinism. Nowadays, in every biological disciplines, the leading destination is occupied by the historical research practices that allow examining an individual path of evolution of different organisms and penetrating deeply in to the essence of biological phenomena. The evolutionary theory of Darwin has been widely used in modern synthetic theory, where in fact the only directing factor of evolution is natural selection, the material for which is given by the mutations. a historical analysis of Darwin’s theory inevitably offers rise towards the new methodological dilemmas of science, which may be the main topic of a special study. The methods to these problems entail widening of the field of knowledge, thus the scientific progress in many areas: biology, medicine, and also psychology, on that your evolutionary theory of Charles Darwin had no less influence than regarding the natural sciences. More over, the Darwinian approach has enabled a simple yet effective conversion of pets and cultivars, and breeding of new, more productive strains of microorganisms that are used whilst the producers of antibiotics. Hence, Darwinism has generated the cornerstone for viewing the complete biosphere of this planet as being a complex evolving system, which may potentially allow humans to handle the evolutionary process.

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Globalisation, outsourcing as well as other trends have explicitly impacted supply chain actions and strategies of Toyota, and also other organizations. However, Japanese organizations such as for example Toyota also face a number of challenges that are just about unique with their nations.  These types of challenges are pertaining to the dilemmas of flexibility (Heizer & Render 2014). Toyota Company tends to be less far along with its established standardised global working models; mainly as it supplies chain process is tightly defined by the enterprise technology. The net impact is that broadening or changing the organization supply chain reach frequently become more complicated, and so, less equipped to handle common dilemmas common into the emergent market (McKeller 2014).

Comparative review between American and Japanese Supply Chain Management

Many manufacturers are nowadays focused on inefficiency and delivery techniques of these organizations. Therefore, organizations are increasingly replicating successful supply chain management so as to make sure efficiency within their supply systems (McKeller 2014). Any manufacturing firm can learn a training from the US automakers and their Japanese competitors that have set up the operations in the usa along with the automotive suppliers.  In between 1980s and 1990, Japanese automakers established volume production ability in the usa, hence, their practices of manufacturing became the conventional of quality for the usa automotive industry (Morana 2013).  Since then, such techniques went beyond the Just-in-time delivery of this parts to a plane and encompassed all lean manufacturing aspects.  Relocated Japanese automakers realised that their success mainly depended on establishing a regional supply chain, which implied sharing of similar manufacturing management technologies and techniques aided by the US suppliers to be remembered as competitive in Japan (Morana 2013). Though it absolutely was initially observed impossible taking into consideration the size of this continent and transportation community, Japanese firms into the United States appear to prove otherwise. US automobile manufacturers started utilising the Just-in-time (JIT)   logistical approach from their suppliers.

Japanese Automakers, in comparison to their US counterparts, tend to emphasise on long term method of trading. When Honda, Toyota and Nissan established an engine and installation plants in america, they brought most of their nationals suppliers which had already grasped the lean concept and supply logistics (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014).  Nonetheless, stress from the government made the automakers seek local supply sources that could meet their stringent, quality, expense and delivery requirements. As a result, Japanese firms had either to just accept poor performance or invest their relationship aided by the US suppliers. As being a result, they made a decision to spend money on supplier development initiatives (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). However, the American supply chain was indeed strenuous particularly for the automakers before adoption of this lean concept. As an example, Johnson Controls, an American firm that delivered seats for the Toyota just few hours ahead of the seat were installed into the installation line (Johnsen, Howard & Miemczyk, 2014). However, before working with Toyota, the supplier could have a huge inventory of seats. Afterwards, after working with Toyota, the quantities of inventory took place from 32 days to 4.1 days.

The supplier plants making and shipping comparable product to both the usa and Japanese customers maintains lower levels of inventory for the Japanese firms than they do for the usa automakers. Suppliers serving Japanese firm achieved an inventory turnover of 38.3 in comparison with 24.4 for the usa customers. They also maintain never as work in progress inventory, finished items and on wheel inventory due to their Japanese customers.  a essential variation also does occur among the Japanese and US customers (Viswanadham & Kameshwaran 2013). Among the transplanted automakers of Japan, Toyota is viewed as initial lean manufacturer with its Toyota production system. In USA, Chrysler leads its US peer, having dedicated to JIT systems to get parts to its installation plants. In comparison, Ford gets the highest on-the-wheel inventory (Saban 2012).

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Although, American firms continue to lag behind their Japanese competitors, the usa automakers work towards increasing.  Whereas in the past weekly deliveries were common, there is a significant change towards daily deliveries and, thus, supported efforts toward reduced total of the inventory.  As an example, aside from its high on-the-wheel inventory, it has been moving aggressively towards realisation of a more efficient and efficient, small-lot deliveries as an element of the Ford production system (Saban 2012). One could expect that reducing the inventory would improve the threat of missing deliveries towards the consumer and shutting down of the installation line, as an aspect that would cause more expensive shipment by expedited trucks. However, despite operating with less inventory, Japanese transplants are not spending more for emergency shipping. Rather, they pay less in emergency shipping of approximately $371 per million sales than US automaker that pays $714 per million sales.  Toyota suppliers will be the most readily useful performers with $204 while Chrysler is by far the worst with $1,235 (Packowski 2014).

Lean Production System, the huge benefits and Challenges towards the Motor Industry

Although, a lot has been written about Just-in-time delivery also lean manufacturing, there is apparently a misunderstanding regarding just how to utilise the above approaches effectively. Lean manufacturing can be an ideology that centers around delivering quality services and products inside the cheapest through focusing at value stream focus (Saban 2012). The worth stream involves all steps in the act that are needed to convert raw material into the product the customer desires.  As a result, any step in the process that fails to achieve this goal is generally considered wasteful into the operations. Ultimate goal of this lean supply chain management is always to reduce the waste, so your product flows since effortlessly as possible. However, the key part of the lean manufacturing process is the JIT delivery that ensures getting appropriate part at the right time (Packowski 2014).

The birth of lean manufacturing philosophy was in Japan within Toyota in 1940s. Toyota production systems were based around to generate a continuous flow which did not count on long production runs to be efficient (Packowski 2014).  The model is completely predicated on recognition that only small group of this total time and effort to process an item is added value towards the end consumer. Lean manufacturing starts aided by the customer’s definition of this value. Value just isn’t defined by the company engineer, managers or the shareholder, but any such thing the consumer is prepared to buy. Ergo, considering that the manufacturing process forms the car of delivering value towards the consumer, the principle of lean thinking centers around delivery product that are attracting the customers’ needs (Monden 2012).

However, so that you can link most of the elements inside the supply chain, it is vital to ensure the flow of value. This is a concept the absolute most people contradicts aided by the mass production systems (Monden 2012). As an example, Toyota realised that shortage of flow into the manufacturing process accounts for huge warehouses that household mass of inventory that consumes working capital of this firm. Into the lean production process, value stream links the activities or activities that ultimately deliver value towards the consumer as it crosses functional and organisational boundaries (Monden 2012).  Into the lean production concept, any activity or process that fails to incorporate worth towards the consumer is named waste. However, the style recognises that not all process is just a waste, specially monetary control they form a crucial part of the company though they don’t add value towards the consumer.

Advantages of Lean Production System

Lean principles minimise all form of waste from the source. Through the style, many resources of the waste in Motor industry such as worn out machines and production of defected parts are detected and correct earlier into the production process. As an aspect that limits transfer of such errors towards the ultimate product of this automobile (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).  Furthermore, it permits identification of other forms of wastes such as for example environmental conditions that impacts operation efficiency. In addition, implementing lean principles in company enhances staff satisfaction since their input is necessary in implementation of the style (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). Employees are termed to be top in pinpointing the foundation of waste and operation inefficiency into the motor industry. Therefore, inclusion into the process nurtures a sense of obligation, ownership and ultimately leads to satisfaction, a essential aspect in boosting productivity and efficiency in production process.

The style offers a competitive advantage as it paid down the cost and improved efficiency. The strategy introduces system and develops skills inside the staff, a piece that support operation changes that scale the production process (Ciravegna 2012).  As it permits the motor firms to truly save room into the warehouses, the excess room can be utilized for new auto-spare parts or other services and products. The style is also accredited for the ability to save time as it makes a staff adapt and react to new work in a quick and efficient manner, hence, ensuring consumers’ needs are met (Ciravegna 2012). The style supplies the firm a competitive advantage since operation is generally first, with quick iterations, minimal waste and timely delivery.

Challenges

In most motor industry, lean production strategy are overused resulting to inefficiency of operations. This frequently takes place when tracking of productivity additionally the waste start to influence the time useful for production. Initial implementation of lean principles leads to larger returns, nevertheless the productivity tends to drop over time (In Golińska 2014).  Therefore, so as to push such expectations, it is vital to examine the worth of improvement. For instance, refined throughput of 1000 parts one hour in one single part, but with only 500 parts from the previous stage suggests that results haven’t improved (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014). The style also acts a way to obtain frustration towards the worker. This takes place each time a specific degree of refinement are achieved, the organization applies the lean solution to realise more economy from the production process, a piece that discourages the worker,  reverse positive motivation and undermines the organization leadership (In Golińska 2014).  A trend indicating revert to previous improvement frequently suggests staff resentment towards the process. Therefore, striking a balance involving the stasis and continuous improvement is just a critical challenge that faces any lean environment.  However, complex organizations such as motor manufacturing firm are inclined to such refinement because of complex nature of these operations (In Kahraman & In ÖztayşI 2014).

Analysis of JIT production and provide Management

Suitability of Toyota supply chain management has been numerously questioned, specially from a environmental perspective. However, it is evident Toyota recognises that a stable supply chain is an essential element of maintaining its manufacturing process (Chopra & Meindl 2013). The organization works closely with suppliers so that you can enhance its manufacturing procedures and productivity. Toyota is reputable for the manufacturing operations that eradicate non-value adding activity. So as to enhance sustainability, Toyota has programs that permit sharing of skills and knowledge aided by the regional suppliers so that you can make sure their long-term sustainability (Agrawal 2010).

Toyota recognises importance of having sustainable and capable automotive parts manufacturers that are globally competitive. The organization through its JIT concept continues to exert effort closely with government additionally the industry to implements supplier improvement initiatives to enhance capabilities of regional suppliers (Chopra & Meindl 2013). A team of professionals in Toyota’s supplier development collaboratively works together the supplier to embed the principles of Toyota production System (TPS) within their manufacturing operations. The TPS strives for a completed elimination of this waste in every part of production to maximise efficiency. The organization closely works together its suppliers in identification and implementation of safety, quality, expense and productivity improvement (Agrawal 2010).

Furthermore, sustainable JIT needs to be eco-efficiency and certainly will be  achieved through management of links into the supply chain to make certain they have been aligned  with consumer service level  that requires acquisition of  garbage and  delivery of this product towards the client via design, procurement, production and distribution (Prater & Whitehead 2013).  However, the application of JIT in Toyota has promoted sustainable logistics since its increase in operational efficiency and environmental sustainability in the transport and logistics system. Furthermore, Toyota JIT manufacturing strategy has been predicated on changing the factory layout, hence, eliminates the necessity to transporting product straight back and forth to different machines; rather it arranges the device to make sure that items flow smoothly from one machine to the other (Prater & Whitehead 2013). This somewhat reduces the energy used, hence, advertising environmental sustainability.  JIT concept permits the organization to cut back the total amount of waste stated in term of defects considering that the system was created to automatically detect the defects and only proceed until a human being intervention fix the problem (Prater & Whitehead 2013).

Into the face of worldwide competition, organizations focus more on customers needs and seek method of reducing costs, improve quality. As a result, many companies have identified logistics as areas to create features of expense and service (Fliedner 2012).  Just-in-time (JIT) management approach, which includes usually been proved effective in manufacturing sector in quality enhancement, productivity and efficiency, improved communication and reduced total of costs and waste permits the firms to reach a competitive advantage through logistic (Fliedner 2012). The approach started in Japan in 1950s. Since then, it has been afterwards adopted by Toyota and another Japanese manufacturing firm due to its prospective to raise productivity while eliminating waste. In Japan, waste manufacturing process is defined as anything else other than equipment, material and workers who’re crucial in production (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). The style underlying the JIT is to find techniques to make processes more effective aided by the ultimate objective of producing items or services without incurring any waste.

JIT forms a integrated problem management perspective that aims at boosting the product quality and timeliness in production, supply and distribution.  Toyota, the first company to realise full potential of JIT believed that the only path in order to make JIT efficient was to have every individual inside the organisation involved and committed to the device, resources and processes are fully utilised for the utmost output and efficiency additionally the product are brought to match the market demands without delay (Grant, Trautrims & Wong 2013). To reach objectives of this JIT, the method mainly relies on the signals between different sections into the manufacturing process. However, JIT relies heavily on other important components in the inventory chain.  As an example, effective application cannot be independent of other key components of the lean manufacturing system. Aside from its influence into the manufacturing process, focusing JIT regarding the presupposition of steadiness is usually inherently flawed (Iyer, Seshadri & Vasher 2009).

Personal Reflections on Toyota Supply Management

It is evident that worldwide motor industry is facing challenges with its supply chain management, specially whilst the industry becomes globalised; the specific situation is complicated by increased competition additionally the urge to generally meet consumer needs. However, boosting sustainability of key supply chain management and model embraced by key organizations such as for example Toyota stays a challenge. Although, the question has been raised regarding suitability of JIT concept from a environmental perspective, I am of this opinion that boosting and reinforcing environmental management into the supply chain would be critical for Toyota (Drake 2012).  So that you can produce safe and clean services and products, it is crucial that all Toyota firms form concerted efforts to handle the environmental impact through its supply chains.

Toyota needs to develop green purchasing guideline for the suppliers bearing in mind the changes in environmental regulations that have occurred globally into the recent years. Such guideline will mainly reinforce the management of substances of concerns from managing raw material, through design, development, production and delivery of this product. Explicit requirements vary at the mercy of the sort of industry additionally the commodity produced by the supplier. However, supplier needs to be likely to comply with the relevant environmental demands.  Boosting sustainability of this Toyota JIT model, Toyota needs to supply a guideline on corporate social obligation (Fliedner 2012). Such guideline has to entail company expectations of this suppliers into the aspects of environmental, safety and human liberties and complement the green purchasing directions.

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The next decade was the most fruitful in the life of Carl Theodor Dreyer: he became a director. From 1920 to 1927 he managed to produce seven feature films. Finding methods to them had not been as easy as he previously to maneuver out from the country, to find sponsorship.

In 1925, after the success of the film ‘Honor your wife’, Dreyer received an offer to exert effort in France. He received an offer in order to make three films predicated on real historical stories, probably involving kings. However, Dreyer had been maybe not enthusiastic about regal individuals; he made a decision to produce a film that describes the last days of Joan of Arc. The task process took significantly more than couple of years, nevertheless the result had been worth it: ‘The Passion of Joan of Arc’” remains considered one of the better works with this great director (Milne, 22).

Aided by the advent of this sound era it became way more difficult for Dreyer to raise money for his films. In addition, into the thirties the complete Scandinavian cinema was in crisis. It order not to ever fall into the final melancholy, Dreyer made a decision to come back to journalism. For the next decade of this twentieth century, he managed to write many articles in regards to the movie that became the material for the book ‘On the movie’. After that Carl Theodor Dreyer was able to come back to the cinema, but until his death he was haunted by having less funds to implement his plans.

Round the same time, when Dreyer received a license to operate ‘Dagmar’, that is, in 1952, he began taking care of the script for his new film ‘The Word’. As soon as the film arrived, Dreyer recalled which he wished to get this film as soon as he saw the ‘Word’ into the theater at its premiere in 1932 (Drum & Drum, 14). It has artistic integrity and a types of artistic naturalness, that will be extremely suitable for the film.

Shortly thereafter, he penned to Kaj Munk, whom he had never met in person, and asked him simply how much he could be prepared to sell the liberties. As soon as the sum of cash ended up being rather high Dreyer, would not stop thinking, but he was maybe not thinking about the money but about ‘The Word’. Only two years after which he wrote a script staging ‘Kaj Munk’ served as being a Lutheran pastor into the fishing community in Jutland, where he went after the theological faculty of this University of Copenhagen. In 1924 Munk had been engaged in literary work, and is the author of about fifteen plays. In addition, Munk was a publicist and active anti-fascist. Back in 1938, he penned articles against Benito Mussolini. Through the German occupation he did not cease in his sermons to condemn fascism and Danish collaborators. Inspite of the entreaties of friends, Munk did not desire to get into hiding, plus in 1944 he was shot by three officers of Gestapo a long way away from his or her own home. Munk had been one of the more famous Danes who were killed due to their opinions through the occupation (Drum & Drum, 10).

In 1943, the ‘Word’ had been filmed in Sweden, additionally the role played by older Borg Victor and Inger role by Wanda Rotgart, with who a year later dreyer was so unhappy through the filming regarding the ‘two’.